AAEP Guidelines for Vaccinations of Horses:
This chart is a suggested vaccination schedule provided by the American Association of Equine Practices (AAEP).
It is based upon generally accepted veterinary practices. These guidelines are neither regulations nor directives for all situations. It is the responsibility of the attending veterinarian, within the context of a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship, to determine the appropriate vaccination needs for each patient. This information is reprinted with the permission from AAEP, an Educational Partner.

Disease/Vaccine

Foals/Weanlings

Yearlings

Performance Horses

Pleasure Horses

Broodmares

Comments

West Nile Virus

First dose: 3-4 months
Second dose: 1 month later
(plus 3rd dose at 6 months in endemic area).

Annual booster, prior to expected risk.  Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk

Annual booster, prior to expected risk.  Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk Annual booster, prior to expected risk.  Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk Annual 4 to 6 week prepartum (see full text in guidelines) Annual booster is after primary series. In endemic areas, booster as required or warranted due to the local conditions conducive to disease risk.  Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (ever 4 months), depending on risk.

Tetanus Toxoid

From non vaccinated mare: First dose: 3 to 4 months. Second dose: 4 to 5 months.
From vaccinated mare:
First dose: 6 months.  Second dose: 7 months. Third dose: 8 to 9 months.

Annual

Annual

Annual

Annual, 4 to 6 weeks prepartum.

Booster at time of penetrating industry or surgery if last dose not administered within 6 months.

Encephalomyelitis
(VEE, EEE, WEE)

EEE (in high-risk areas): First dose: 3 to 4 months. Second dose: 4 to 5 months. Third dose: 5 to 6 months.

WEE, EEE (in low-risk areas) and VEE:
From non vaccinated mare:
First dose: 3 to 4 months. Second dose: 4 to 5 months. Third dose 5 to 6 months.
From vaccinated mare: First dose: 6 months. Second dose: 7 months. Third dose: 8 months.

Annual, spring

 

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

 

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

 

Annual, spring

Annual, 4 to 6 weeks prepartum.

 

Annual, 4 to 6 weeks prepartum.

In endemic areas, booster EEE and WEE every 6 months; VEE only needed when threat of exposure; VEE may only be available as a combination vaccine with EEE and WEE.

Influenza

Inactivated injectable: From non vaccinated mare:
First dose: 6 months. Second dose 7 months. Third dose: 8 months. Then at 3 month intervals.
From vaccinated mare: First dose: 9 months. Second dose: 10 months. Third dose: 11 to 12 months.  Then at 3-month intervals.

Intranasal modified live virus:
First dose 11 months; has been safely administrated to foals less than 11 months.
(see comments)

Every 3 to 4 months

 

 

Every 6 months.

Every 3 to 4 months

 

 

Every 6 months.

Annual with added boosters prior to likely exposure, every 6 months.

At least semi-annual, with 1 booster 4 to 6 weeks prepartum.  Annual before breeding (see comments).

A series of at least 3 doses is recommended for primary immunization of foals.  Not recommended for pregnant mares until data available.  Use inactivated vaccine for prepartum booster. If first dose is administered to foals less than 11 months of age, administer 2nd dose at or after 11 months of age.

Rhinopneumonitis

(EHV-1 and EHV-4)

First dose: 4 to 6 months. Second dose: 5 to 7 months.  Third dose: 6 to 8 months.  Then at 3-month intervals.

Booster every 3 to 4 months, up to annually.

Booster every 3 to 4 months, up to annually.

Optional: semi-annually if elected.

Fifth, seventh and ninth month of gestation (inactivated EHV 1 vaccine); optional dose at third month of gestation.

Vaccination of mares before breeding and 4 to 6 week prepartum is suggested.  Breeding stallions should be vaccinated before the breeding season and semi-annually.

Strangles

Injectable: First dose: 4 to 6 months. Second dose: 5 to 7 months, Third dose: 7 to 8 months. (depending on the product used) Fourth dose: 12 months.

Semi-annual

Optional semi-annual, if risk high

Optional semi-annual, if risk high

Semi-annual with one dose of inactivated M-protein vaccine 4 to 6 weeks prepartum.

Vaccines containing M-protein extract maybe less reactive than whole-cell vaccines.  Use when endemic conditions exist or risk is high. Foals as young as 6 weeks of age may safely receive the intranasal product.  A third dose should be administered 2 to 4 weeks prior to weaning.

Rabies

Foals born to non vaccinated mares: First dose: 3 to 4 months. Second dose: 12 months.

Foals born to vaccinated mares: First dose: 6 months.  Second dose: 7 months.  Third dose: 12 months.

Annual

Annual

Annual

Annual before breeding.

Vaccination recommended in endemic areas.  Do not use modified-live-virus vaccines in horses.

Potomac Horse
Fever

First dose: 5 to 6 months. Second dose: 6 to 7 months.

Semi-annual Semi-annual Semi-annual Semi-annual with 1 dose 5 to 6 weeks prepartum. Booster during May to June in endemic areas.
Botulism Foals from vaccinated mares:
3-dose series of toxoid at 30-day intervals starting at 2 to 3 months of age.
Foal from non vaccinated mares:
See Comments
Consult your veterinarian. Consult your veterinarian. Consult your veterinarian. Initial 3-dose series at 30-day intervals with last dose 4 to 6 weeks prepartum.  Annual thereafter, 4 to 6 weeks prepartum. Only in endemic areas. A third dose administered 4 to 6 weeks after the second dose may improve the response of foals to primary immunization.
Foal from non vaccinated mare may benefit from: 1) toxoid at 2,4 nd 8 weeks of age; 2) transfusion of plasma from vaccinated horse; or 3) antitoxin. Efficacy needs further study.
Equine Viral
Arteritis
Intact colts intended to be breeding stallions: One dose at 6 to 12 months of age. Annual for colts intended to be breeding stallions. Annual for colts intended to be breeding stallions. Annual for colts intended to be breeding stallions. Annual for seronegative, open mares before breeding to carrier stallions; isolate mares for 21 days after breeding to carrier stallion. Annual for breeding stallions and teasers, 28 days before start of breeding season; virus may be shed in semen for up to 21 days.  Vaccinated mares do not develop clinical signs even though they become transiently infected and may shed virus for a short time.
Rotavirus A Little value to vaccinate foal because of insufficient time to develop antibodies to protect during susceptible age. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Vaccinate mares at 8, 9 and 10 months of gestation, each pregnancy.  Passive transfer of antibodies aid in prevention of rotoviral diarrhea in foals. Check concentrations of immunoglobulins in foal to be assured that there is no failure of passive transfer.


As with administration of medications, the label and product insert should be read before administration of all vaccines. Schedules for stallions should be consistent with the vaccination program of the adult horse population on the farm and modified according to risk. EEE=eastern equine encephalomyelitis, WEE=western equine encephalomyelitis, VEE=Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis; EHV-1=equine herpes virus type.